List of Major and Minor Defects in Garment Manufacturing

Introduction:
Defects in garment manufacturing can arise at different stages of the production process, from the fabric selection to final packaging. During garments manufacturing different kinds of major and minor defects are occur in garments. Defects crop up in a garment due to diverse reasons. Types of garment, customer demand, standard of quality, technology used, worker skill etc greatly affects defect, its source and its severity etc. A company must make a list of major and minor defects which must not be present in the garments manufacturing or packages. Identifying and addressing these defects is crucial to ensure the production of high-quality garments.

Types of Garment Defects:
There are some common defects in garment manufacturing:

  1. Construction Defects
  2. Color Defects
  3. Fabric Defects
  4. Trims Defects
  5. Packing Defects
  6. Measurement Defect
Garments defect
Figure: Defects in Garment Manufacturing

Types of Defects:
During garment inspection, defects are generally classified in to three categories.

  1. Major Defects
  2. Minor Defects
  3. Critical Defects

1. Major Defects:
The defects that are easily visible and impair functional quality or serviceability of a product are called major defects. stain, hole puckering etc on the front part of a garment comprise major defects. Major defects spoil general good appearance and the saleability of the products. Buyers are not interested to purchase such goods. No one is certainly interested to buy a defective merchandise at a price.

2. Minor Defects:
The defects that are not visible from outside and that are located in the unimportant area of garments and do not impair their functional quality comprise minor defects. Buyers are generally accept this kind of garments with minor defects.

3. Critical Defects:
It refers that the product is unsafe or hazardous for the end-user or violates mandatory regulations. If a critical defect is found anywhere then it is better not to buy the garment. Because critical defects include various problems that render the garment unusable. Some examples of critical defects are breaking something like metal and staying in clothes, no buttons in clothes, and having problems with clothing care labels.

Factors to be Considered for Classification of Defects:

  1. Location of defects
  2. Size of the defects
  3. How visible the defects from 18″ distance
  4. End use of the product

List of Major and Minor Defects in Garments Manufacturing:
Customer generally supply a list of major and minor defects so as to take care of them.
Different Types of Major and Minor Defects in Garments Manufacturing are listed in below: 

Sl/No Source of defects Description of defects Major defect Minor defect
1. Fabric Wrong fabric
Damage fabric/ Fabric with hole
If not visible from outside
If hole continuous to grow
If shading present
If there is printing defect
If printing defect not visible
Fabric not matching with master swatch
2. Fusing If bubbling occurs to fusing
If discoloration occurs
If fusing gum is visible from outside.
3. Zipper If zipper type and color is wrong
If slider is defective
If zipper size is wrong
If zipper is not well attached
4. Button If button not securely attached
If wrong buttons attached
Missing functional buttons
Missing decorative buttons (For zone B its Minor)
Misaligned button (For zone B its Minor)
Functional or decorative button insecurity sewn
Size, type, and color not as specified
Damaged button
5. Button hole If button hole is incomplete
If button hole is cut
If button hole not aligned
Missing functional button hole
Missing decorative button hole (For zone B its Minor)
Misaligned button hole (For zone B its Minor)
Extra button hole
Broken or skipped stitches in the buttonholes
6. Velcro Wrong velcro
Defective velcro
Wrong Velcro size
Velcro misplace
7. Snap button Snap button attached incorrectly
Wrong snap button attached
Defective snap button
8. Eyelet, grommet, buckle etc If attached incorrectly
If omitted
If defectiveq
9. Embroidery Missing  embroidery
Misplace embroidery
If embroidery is loose
If embroidery is defective
Size, shape, color as not specified
10. Sewing/

construction

If two shaded parts are sewn together
If wrinkle appears during sewing.
If strap is not aligned
If draw-card, tape etc do not move easily
If wrong size/type linings are attached
11. Seam/stitch Stitch type incorrect
SPI incorrect
Broken stitch wrong inlay
Stripe or check not matching
Wrong seam
Thread not matching
Defect repair incorrectly
Defects like puckering, twisting, waving etc present
Open seam present
Overlap stitching (if it occur in zone B then it minor)
Double stitching
12. Pockets/cuffs If top stitching not graceful
If up or down the position
Absence of back stitch
13. Shade & color Off shade
Mismatched color
14. Label Missing
Misplace (if it occur in zone B then it minor)
Incomplete label
Wrong label
Insecurely attached
15. Pressing Over pressed
Distorted
Wrinkles
16. Construction & stitching Any raw edge visible
If repair results in poor appearance
If seam shows poor appearance
If needle hole present
Wrong embroidery
Up-down/ misplacement
Weak attachment of lining or facing resulting in poor appearance
Drill hole/ notches visible
If placket is twisted
If stitch tension too tight
Broken stitch in chain stitch seam
Broken or skip stitch present and visible
If bartack is misplace
If bartack is omitted
17. Washing & Dyeing Fabric is not color fast
Over shrinkage of fabric
Improper Dyeing
Running Shade
18. Finishing/ packaging Overheating by iron changing fabric color
Poor folding resulting in poor appearance
Damaged poly bag
If garment size not matching that shown on package
If package broken or defective
Assortment wrong
If inner or cartons are broken
Poor quality of master carton
Goods package incorrectly, resulting in poor appearance
Missing , incorrect, or illegible pre-marked label
Too much loose thread in packed garment
Spoilage/ oil mark/ stain visible from outside
Spoilage/ oil mark/ stain not visible from outside
Part of garment undesirably stretched during finishing
If button/ snap button/ zipper are found broken after pressing
Pocket or lining not smoothly folded after pressing
If shipping mark/ side mark on carton is wrong

How to Prevent Defects in Garment Manufacturing:
For manufacture of quality garments, the following measures have to be rigorously taken prior to start production. There should be approved sample and approved swatch card. Swatch card must show fabric, trims, accessories etc required for production of garments.

  1. Check quality of raw materials as soon as they reach store and ensure their specified quality.
  2. Pattern should be flawless.
  3. Ensure that a proper Quality Management System (QMS) is installed and working.
  4. Size and color wise bundling of cut fabrics should be precise.
  5. Ensure that sewing and stitching should be without defects.
  6. ensure workmanship and work standard.
  7. Ensure quality of finishing and packing.
  8. Assortment should be as per Specification.
  9. Ensure use of proper machine, tools, folders and attachments etc.
  10. Machinery should be well maintained.
  11. Workers should be highly skilled and trained to do their job and responsibilities well.
  12. Job of each operator should be clearly explained and if possible, should be given in writing.

To maintain regular quality control measures, effective communication between production stages, and proper training of personnel can help to minimize these defects in garment manufacturing. To get defects free garments, apply quality assurance processes, such as inspections and testing, can also contribute to the overall improvement of product quality.

References:

  1. Apparel Manufacturing Technology by T. Karthik, P. Ganesan, D. Gopalakrishnan
  2. Quality Management in the Apparel Industry by Engr. A. J. S. M. Khaled

You may also read:

  1. Why Defects Occur in Garments Industry?
  2. Classification of Defects Zone in Apparel During Visual Inspection
  3. How Inspection Sampling Plan Works in Clothing Industry

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