Defects in garment manufacturing can arise at different stages of the production process, from the fabric selection to final packaging. During garments manufacturing different kinds of major and minor defects are occur in garments. Defects crop up in a garment due to diverse reasons. Types of garment, customer demand, standard of quality, technology used, worker skill etc greatly affects defect, its source and its severity etc. A company must make a list of major and minor defects which must not be present in the garments manufacturing or packages. Identifying and addressing these defects is crucial to ensure the production of high-quality garments.
Types of Garment Defects:
There are some common defects in garment manufacturing:
- Construction Defects
- Color Defects
- Fabric Defects
- Trims Defects
- Packing Defects
- Measurement Defect
Types of Defects:
During garment inspection, defects are generally classified in to three categories.
- Major Defects
- Minor Defects
- Critical Defects
1. Major Defects:
The defects that are easily visible and impair functional quality or serviceability of a product are called major defects. stain, hole puckering etc on the front part of a garment comprise major defects. Major defects spoil general good appearance and the saleability of the products. Buyers are not interested to purchase such goods. No one is certainly interested to buy a defective merchandise at a price.
2. Minor Defects:
The defects that are not visible from outside and that are located in the unimportant area of garments and do not impair their functional quality comprise minor defects. Buyers are generally accept this kind of garments with minor defects.
3. Critical Defects:
It refers that the product is unsafe or hazardous for the end-user or violates mandatory regulations. If a critical defect is found anywhere then it is better not to buy the garment. Because critical defects include various problems that render the garment unusable. Some examples of critical defects are breaking something like metal and staying in clothes, no buttons in clothes, and having problems with clothing care labels.
Factors to be Considered for Classification of Defects:
- Location of defects
- Size of the defects
- How visible the defects from 18″ distance
- End use of the product
List of Major and Minor Defects in Garments Manufacturing:
Customer generally supply a list of major and minor defects so as to take care of them.
Different Types of Major and Minor Defects in Garments Manufacturing are listed in below:
|Sl/No||Source of defects||Description of defects||Major defect||Minor defect|
|Damage fabric/ Fabric with hole||√|
|If not visible from outside||—||√|
|If hole continuous to grow||√|
|If shading present||√|
|If there is printing defect||√|
|If printing defect not visible||—||√|
|Fabric not matching with master swatch||√|
|2.||Fusing||If bubbling occurs to fusing||√|
|If discoloration occurs||√|
|If fusing gum is visible from outside.||√|
|3.||Zipper||If zipper type and color is wrong||√|
|If slider is defective||√|
|If zipper size is wrong||√|
|If zipper is not well attached||√|
|4.||Button||If button not securely attached||√|
|If wrong buttons attached||√|
|Missing functional buttons||√|
|Missing decorative buttons (For zone B its Minor)||√|
|Misaligned button (For zone B its Minor)||√|
|Functional or decorative button insecurity sewn||√|
|Size, type, and color not as specified||√|
|5.||Button hole||If button hole is incomplete||√|
|If button hole is cut||√|
|If button hole not aligned||√|
|Missing functional button hole||√|
|Missing decorative button hole (For zone B its Minor)||√|
|Misaligned button hole (For zone B its Minor)||√|
|Extra button hole||√|
|Broken or skipped stitches in the buttonholes||√|
|Wrong Velcro size||√|
|7.||Snap button||Snap button attached incorrectly||√|
|Wrong snap button attached||√|
|Defective snap button||√|
|8.||Eyelet, grommet, buckle etc||If attached incorrectly||√|
|If embroidery is loose||√|
|If embroidery is defective||√|
|Size, shape, color as not specified||√|
|If two shaded parts are sewn together||√|
|If wrinkle appears during sewing.||√|
|If strap is not aligned||√|
|If draw-card, tape etc do not move easily||√|
|If wrong size/type linings are attached||√|
|11.||Seam/stitch||Stitch type incorrect||√|
|Broken stitch wrong inlay||√|
|Stripe or check not matching||√|
|Thread not matching||√|
|Defect repair incorrectly||√|
|Defects like puckering, twisting, waving etc present||√|
|Open seam present||√|
|Overlap stitching (if it occur in zone B then it minor)||√|
|12.||Pockets/cuffs||If top stitching not graceful||√|
|If up or down the position||√|
|Absence of back stitch||√|
|13.||Shade & color||Off shade||√|
|Misplace (if it occur in zone B then it minor)||√|
|16.||Construction & stitching||Any raw edge visible||√|
|If repair results in poor appearance||√|
|If seam shows poor appearance||√|
|If needle hole present||√|
|Weak attachment of lining or facing resulting in poor appearance||√|
|Drill hole/ notches visible||√|
|If placket is twisted||√|
|If stitch tension too tight||√|
|Broken stitch in chain stitch seam||√|
|Broken or skip stitch present and visible||—||√|
|If bartack is misplace||√|
|If bartack is omitted||√|
|17.||Washing & Dyeing||Fabric is not color fast||√|
|Over shrinkage of fabric||√|
|18.||Finishing/ packaging||Overheating by iron changing fabric color||√|
|Poor folding resulting in poor appearance||√|
|Damaged poly bag||√|
|If garment size not matching that shown on package||√|
|If package broken or defective||√|
|If inner or cartons are broken||√|
|Poor quality of master carton||√|
|Goods package incorrectly, resulting in poor appearance||√|
|Missing , incorrect, or illegible pre-marked label||√|
|Too much loose thread in packed garment||√|
|Spoilage/ oil mark/ stain visible from outside||√|
|Spoilage/ oil mark/ stain not visible from outside||—||√|
|Part of garment undesirably stretched during finishing||√|
|If button/ snap button/ zipper are found broken after pressing||√|
|Pocket or lining not smoothly folded after pressing||√|
|If shipping mark/ side mark on carton is wrong||√|
How to Prevent Defects in Garment Manufacturing:
For manufacture of quality garments, the following measures have to be rigorously taken prior to start production. There should be approved sample and approved swatch card. Swatch card must show fabric, trims, accessories etc required for production of garments.
- Check quality of raw materials as soon as they reach store and ensure their specified quality.
- Pattern should be flawless.
- Ensure that a proper Quality Management System (QMS) is installed and working.
- Size and color wise bundling of cut fabrics should be precise.
- Ensure that sewing and stitching should be without defects.
- ensure workmanship and work standard.
- Ensure quality of finishing and packing.
- Assortment should be as per Specification.
- Ensure use of proper machine, tools, folders and attachments etc.
- Machinery should be well maintained.
- Workers should be highly skilled and trained to do their job and responsibilities well.
- Job of each operator should be clearly explained and if possible, should be given in writing.
To maintain regular quality control measures, effective communication between production stages, and proper training of personnel can help to minimize these defects in garment manufacturing. To get defects free garments, apply quality assurance processes, such as inspections and testing, can also contribute to the overall improvement of product quality.
- Apparel Manufacturing Technology by T. Karthik, P. Ganesan, D. Gopalakrishnan
- Quality Management in the Apparel Industry by Engr. A. J. S. M. Khaled
You may also read:
- Why Defects Occur in Garments Industry?
- Classification of Defects Zone in Apparel During Visual Inspection
- How Inspection Sampling Plan Works in Clothing Industry
Editor of Fashion2Apparel. She is a fashion designer and ex-lecturer in Fashion Designing. She wants to spread fashion knowledge throughout the world.