The fashions of today are incomplete without denim. Denim comes in all forms, looks and washes to match with every style of dress. It would be difficult to believe that the same denim was originally employed in clothing for the pants and overalls worn by miners on the West Coast of the United States. Vast technological improvements in spinning, weaving, finishing and washing have contributed to making denim the fashion icon that it is today. Washing in particular plays an important role in denim manufacturing because of the countless effects on jeans that consumers so desire.
Denim fabric became popular in 18th century for its aspects of durability and not easily torn which benefited physical laborers much. But now denim has become fashion trends. It is a symbol of modeling and modern culture. Denim has risen to be a fashion icon and is being adorned by fashion models. Young generation totally depends on denim clothing and denim based garments. In modern days wardrobe is incomplete without denim garments. Now different types of fashionable cloth for all type of people are made by different types of denim fabric.
Denim is a durable heavy weight twill weave woven. To make denim fabric, the weft yarn passes under two or more warps yarns. Traditional denim is 100% cotton fabric. Additionally, denim is often blended with other fabrics. Denim is very versatile fabric. Blue is the original color of denim but it is also dyed into different colors like black, brown and olive green. Denim is the most commonly used as the main raw material in manufacturing of jeans, but it is also used for making different types of garments specially shirts, jackets, skirts, dresses, hats, handbags and more.
Properties of Denim Fabric:
Denim is popular worldwide for its fit, ease and durability. Below are the some important properties of denim fabric:
- Denim is very strong and durable.
- It is feeling hard during wearing.
- Denim fabric creases easily.
- It is warp-faced twill, the colored warp yarns predominate on the face and the white weft yarns on the back.
- Usually the warp is colored and weft is white.
- It is used for long time wearing.
- It resists tears and snags.
Types of Denim Fabrics Used in Garments Manufacturing:
There are various types of denim fabric used in garments making. They are given below:
- Raw denim or dry denim
- Selvedge denim
- Organic denim
- Stretch denim
- Poly denim
- Ramie cotton denim
- Cotton serge denim
- Colored denim
- Bubblegum denim
- Denim from fox fiber
- Crushed denim
- Vintage denim
- Ecru denim
- Marble denim
- Reverse denim
- Bull denim
- Printed denim
- Slub denim
Types of denim fabric are briefly described with images.
1. Raw denim or dry denim:
Raw denim or dry denim is not washed after being dyed during its production. So raw denim is dark, stiff and very durable. Such type of denim color will fade over time, which many people like.
2. Selvedge denim:
Selvage denim is a unique kind of denim. It forms a clean natural edge that does not unravel. It’s made by one continuous cross-yarn: quite an advanced process that leads to a strong, durable piece of clothing. The selvage edge is usually stitched with colored thread: green, white, brown, yellow, and red (red is the most common). This type of denim is more expensive as compared to other types of denims.
3. Organic denim:
Organic denim is manufactured from 100% organic cotton. To make organic denim, all types of chemical are excluded. Potato starch is used instead of chemicals.
4. Stretch denim:
Stretch denim is one of them most comfortable form of denim. It is closest to pure denim. To manufacture stretch denim 2 to 3% spandex material are used. So it allows to move more freely than other denim fabrics. It is widely used to make women jeans.
5. Poly denim:
Poly denim looks like a dressier denim. To make casual wear poly denim is used. It is lightweight and easy to wash and dry. It is comfortable to wear and still maintain a professional look. This fabric is more resistant to wrinkling.
6. Ramie cotton denim:
Ramie denim is blended with other fabrics such as cotton, polyester and spandex. Which reduces wrinkling and it keeps its shape. This denim has a silky luster look, which makes for perfect casual denim dress, tops, and overalls.
7. Cotton serge denim:
Serge denim is considered as traditional type denim. It is made with 100% cotton serge. Serge is actually a fabric having a diagonal pattern. It is known for being sturdy and resilient.
8. Colored denim:
Colored denim is manufactured with dyed yarn either warp or weft. Now it is trend. Colored denim is a great way to bring interest, femininity, and sunny personality to regular jeanswear. This type of denim can be obtained by piece dyeing process. Technically, colored denim is really twill and not denim. “Denim” specifically refers to the indigo-and-white fabric that is traditionally used for jeans.
9. Bubblegum denim:
Bubble gum denim is lycra containing denim that has between 35 to 50% stretch. Bubblegum denim is widely used to make women items like as shorts.
10. Denim from fox fiber:
This denim fabric manufactured by colored cotton fiber. Developed and patented by California cotton breeder, Salley Fox. NITRA, India has also done work on this line.
11. Crushed denim:
Crushed denim is woven with an over twist weft yarn. This denim that looks permanently wrinkled. The fabric then shrinks when washed. The effect can also be improved by using bleach and stone.
12. Vintage denim:
Vintage denim is old looked denim. Normal denim is treated with stone wash or organic enzyme cellulose wash with bleach results in torn and old looking texture over a denim.
13. Ecru denim:
Denim that has not been dyed indigo. This denim contains single color yarn (mostly gray colored yarn is used) in its weft and wrap.
14. Marble denim:
This is also called acid washed denim. Marble denim is washed with a strong bleach solution.
15. Reverse denim:
In reverse denim face side and reverse side is same.
16. Bull denim:
A heavy weight denim weave (14oz. Plus). Bull denim is durable and heavy, takes dye well with very good results. This denim is perfect for slipcovers, upholstery, draperies, pillow covers, headboards and much more.
17. Printed denim:
That has been printed with a pattern-a batik, stripe or floral.
18. Slub denim:
Slub denim is denim that has been woven using uneven, or slub, yarn for both the warp and weft threads. It is a more rare type of denim and develops a unique crisscrossed pattern as it fades. It is also called crosshatch denim.
You may also like:
- Different Types of Denim Jeans Washing Process
- Diversification and Uses of Denim Fabric
- Acid Wash Process on Denim Jeans Garment
Editor of Fashion2Apparel. She is a fashion designer and ex-lecturer in Fashion Designing. She wants to spread fashion knowledge throughout the world.