What is Loom | Classification of Loom

What is Loom?
Loom is one type of mechanical device which is used to produce woven fabric by the interlacement a series of vertical, parallel threads (the warp) with a series of horizontal, parallel threads (the filling or weft). Some sometimes loom is called weaving machine. In weaving technology; loom is the principle mechanical device for weaving. Pit loom is the first loom in loom history. Subsequently the handloom was developed and then the power loom. Now, various types of loom are used for producing fabric.

Hand loom
Figure 1: Hand loom and power loom

The primary distinction between different types of looms is the manner of filling insertion. The principal elements of any type of loom are the shedding, picking and beating-up devices.

Principle of the weaving loom
Figure 2: Principle of the weaving loom

Figure 2 shows the principle of a weaving loom valid for hand looms as well as modern weaving machines. The warp threads are drawn off the warp beam and redirected into the weaving plane at the back rail. Functions of the back rail (back rest) are ƒƒredirection of the warp threads, ƒƒcompensation for the instability in warp tension during shed lifting by oscillating motion, and ƒƒsensor for the warp let-off motion.

Loom and Its Classification:
In previous time hand loom was used to make fabric. But day by day technology has become updated. Now various types of loom are used to manufacture fabric. In this article, loom and its classification are described broadly. From the below image you will get classification of loom or weaving machine.

classification of loom
Figure 3: Classification of loom

Generally classification of loom in two types. They are-

  1. Hand loom
  2. Power loom

Broadly classification of these two types of loom:

1. Hand loom:

  1. Primitive or vertical loom.
  2. Chittranjan/Semi-automatic loom.
  3. Hattersley loom.
  4. Pit loom.
    1. Through shuttle loom.
    2. Fly shuttle loom.
  5. Frame loom:
    1. Through shuttle.
    2. Fly shuttle.

2. Power loom

  1. Ordinary power loom
  2. Electric power loom
  3. Automatic power loom
  4. Modern power loom

A. Jet loom
B. Rapier loom
C. Multiphase loom

A. Jet Loom:

  1. Air jet loom
  2. Water jet loom

B. Rapier Loom:

  1. Flexible rapier loom:
    1. Single rapier
    2. Double rapier

C. Multiphase loom:

  1. Plain multi phase loom
  2. Circular multiphase loom

Loom is also classified into two types depending on the shuttle:

  • Shuttle Loom: Shuttle loom is that loom where weft yarn is inserting through the warp yarn by the means of shuttle.
  • Shuttle less Loom: In a shuttle less loom, weft yarn is inserting through the warp yarn by the means of projectile, rapier, air jet or water.

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