Garment Pattern Making: Instruction, Construction and Principles

Garment Pattern Making:
The first step in manufacturing a garment is the creation of design and construction of patterns for the components of design. Pattern is a template from which the parts of a garment are traced onto woven or knitted fabrics before being cut out and assembled. Pattern making broadly describes the process of creating and adapting shapes to translate a two dimensional design into a three-dimensional form. The process requires a combination of technical skills and the ability to visualize three dimensions. The shaped pattern pieces are made into a prototype garment called a toile or muslin. Developing a fl at pattern into a garment should always take account of height, width and girth.

garment pattern making
Fig: Garment pattern making

For most fashion designers, pattern making simultaneously encompasses the technical process of cutting an accurate pattern and the creative interpretation of a design source such as a fashion sketch. In the apparel industry, pattern making also reflects costing and manufacturing requirements. The first pattern that is created in a sample room or design studio is called a sample pattern. This type of pattern might be drafted on paper or lightweight card but requires further ‘engineering’ in order to become a production pattern. Production patterns are fully styled patterns that are transferred on to firm card for manufacturing purposes. They need to be highly durable and suitable for grading up or down into the required number of sizes, known as a nest of grades. They also include all seam allowances, notches, grain-lines, size, style name or code and cutting instructions.

Instruction of Pattern Making:
Following instruction must be marked on apparel pattern, to enable the garment to be made up correctly:

  1. Style Number.
  2. Name of the part
  3. Size (it will show you how to find your size on a pattern finished garment measurements)
  4. Grain Line: All patterns must have grain lines. It indicates the length direction of fabrics, i.e. during marker making all patterns must be placed to the length direction.
  5. Balance Mark: Used to ensure patterns are sewn together at the correct points.
  6. Construction Lines: These include button holes, pocket placing etc.

Garment Pattern Construction:

  1. Manual Method.
  2. By Computer (CAD).

Principles of Pattern Making:
A garment sewing patterns or garment fabric and patterns draft is developed by calculating, taking account of the following measurements:

  1. Direct Sample.
  2. Specification Sheet / Measurement Chart.
  3. Actual body size measurements.
  4. Easy Allowances.
  5. Sewing Allowance.

Pattern Draft:
A pattern draft is a diagrammatic representation of the way a garment is constructed. The objective of pattern draft is to develop a sample garment.

Pattern Grading:
Pattern grading is a process of enlarging or diminishing a style pattern, making it possible to obtain proper fit for all sizes without changing the title for a given compilation of anthropometric measurements that are suitable for a person whose body measurements lie within certain tolerance limits of the garment size measurements.

Pattern Sets:
Different sizes of pattern for a particular style are called pattern sets, e.g. L.M.S.

Production Pattern:
The pattern is which are used for huge production is called production pattern.

You may also like:

  1. Pattern Grading Methods in Apparel Industry
  2. Techniques of Measuring Body and Dress Form

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