The lustrous and richly patterned fabrics seen today are only possible through surface ornamentation of the fabric. Decorated and colorful cloths are in vogue all over the world. Along with the development of civilization, people’s taste and sense of beauty has changed. And according to this demand, outer color, attractive print that is to say surface ornamentation on fabric has become necessary in fashion designing. Blocks, batik, tie-dye, embroidery, etc. can be used to embellish clothes. It is mainly required to make clothes bright and attractive.
What is Surface Ornamentation?
After forming the fabric, decorating its surface using various methods such as tie-dye, block, batik, print, embroidery etc. is called surface ornamentation. Currently, its role in fashion designing is immense. Surface decoration is preferred to attract and retain customers.
Surface Ornamentation Techniques in Fashion Designing:
All kinds of vegetable, animal, mineral, artificial fibers can be dyed and printed. There are various techniques or methods of surface ornamentation. Important among them are given bellow:
- Block print
- Batik print
- Screen print
Blocks are different designs carved on wood. And block printed cloth is called block print. 4000 thousand years ago in China, wood block printing was first used to print characters on silk cloth. Although the Chinese started printing with flowers, vines and leaves in three colors. Block print began its journey around the 220th century during the reign of the Han Empire. According to historians, block printing started in Asia hundreds of years before Europe.
Currently, the use of geometric designs in block printing is very popular. This geometric design started from Mughal era. Besides, since then various motifs such as flowers, birds, animals etc. various designs have appeared in the block print. Block printing can be done on any fabric like Sarees, Bed Sheets, Pillow Covers, Selwar Kameez, Genji etc. However, it is important to remember that since it requires the use of solid colors, it is better to wear cotton or silk batik less on rainy days. Because it can spread the color.
A feature of this design is that one cloth does not match the design of another cloth exactly. So one can make designs and print clothes by placing small and big blocks as per one’s wish. And if suitable colors can be selected according to the color of the fabric, then the design also comes out well and the fabric looks very nice. This business is very easy to do and its demand is also huge. So, It’s effects immense in fashion designing.
The method of dyeing the fabric is called batik print by drawing a design on some parts of the fabric and then covering the design with wax and dipping it in the dye. In this case, the color cannot penetrate the waxed part properly. As a result, it becomes perfect. Batik print can be done not only on cloth but also on leather.
Natural and chemicals are used as two types of colors of batik colors. Batik’s work is done with blue, turmoil, flock, onion peel, shocks, hats etc., in particular methods of natural ingredients. Before only the cotton cloth was done, but now silk, gardon, taras, muslin, andi cotton are also printed in Khadi cloth. Currently the batik print fabrics are very popular. Especially in the presence of Batik prints in the fashion, it is very easy to see. Batik Print sari, Salwar-Kamiz-orna, Skirt, Fatua, Scarf, Shirts, Punjabi etc. are very interesting. As a result, it is easily made in mind as comfortable and fashionable clothes. Batik yard clothes are also available in a very cheap. So many people buying a yard cloth and made your favorite clothes.
Screen printing is a printing method in which the desired design or image is created by transferring color to selected areas of mesh in fabric, paper or wood. The rest except for selected areas of the mesh are then slowed down with a special type of stencil or photo emulsion. Traditionally this was called a silk screen print because initially silk or silk was used as a mesh. This method is also known as serigraphy.
Screen printing method is very easy to do. For screen printing, the screen must first be made and for making the screen, thin cloth made of special silk, cotton organdy, nylon or polyester fiber is tightly stuck to a frame made of wood or iron, and other parts except the design parts are closed with chemical substances to prevent water. Then the printing paste is poured on the screen and applied to the cloth by a rubber squeezer. This method costs very little and is a very simple method. Large designs can be printed by this method and its production capacity is very high. It is comparatively little more popular than other prints. Curtains, table cloths, various fabrics, sarees etc. are printed by screen printing.
Embroidery is a type of sewing that is sewn with colored thread to decorate clothes or clothing. Hand or machine is used for making clothes more attractive. The thread used in embroidery is called viscose thread. It is produced from continuous filaments or staple fibers produced from regenerated cellulose.
Embroidery is a very laborious process that requires persistence and patience. But at the same time, this activity is very calming and relaxing to the nerves. The trend of design in fashion never gets old. Embroidery is always new. Needle-thread designs bring an artistic beauty to the garment. The tradition of weaving colorful thread designs on cloth by the needle is thousands of years old. With the rhythmic movement of needle and thread, the texture of a very ordinary garment becomes effortlessly unique. The history of designing clothes with needle and thread is very old.
Although tie-dye is old in fashion, it has appeared again and again with new forms. Tie dye is done on various fabrics including cotton, khadi, silk, half silk, linen, tasar, muslin, andi cotton. One can even do tie dye work with their own hands according to the design of their choice. Apart from clothes, sarees, kameez, veils, it can be done on bed sheets and curtains.
Tie dye is actually done using two mediums, natural or vegetable dyes and artificial dyes. But these designs look more beautiful in natural colors. It is called tie dye because the cloth is tied tightly and dipped in dye.
Generally circle, square, straight line, crooked line, curve line etc methods are used. At one time tie-dye designs were done only on white cloth. Now it is also done in colored cloth.
The beautiful look of the embellished fabric is appreciated all over the world. Surface decoration is done to make the fabric texture bright and attractive. Its development is particularly dynamic. It goes without saying that surface ornamentation will decorate the field of fashion designing in a more advanced, exceptional and innovative way with the touch of technology excellence over time. So it is very important in fashion designing.
Author of This Article:
Clothing and Textile
Govt. College of Applied Human Science, Dhaka
You may also like:
- Color Selection Techniques for Fashion Designers
- Textile Printing and Its Importance in Fashion Industry
Editor of Fashion2Apparel. She is a fashion designer and ex-lecturer in Fashion Designing. She wants to spread fashion knowledge throughout the world.